APrIGF 2022 Session Proposal Submission Form
Part 1 - Lead Organizer
Contact Person
Dan York
Organization / Affiliation (Please state "Individual" if appropriate) *
Internet Society
Project Lead, Low Earth Orbit Satellites
Economy of Residence
United States
Primary Stakeholder Group
Technical Community
Part 2 - Session Proposal
Session Title
LEO Satellite Constellations - Will They Bring Better Internet Access and a More Resilient Internet?
Session Format
Where do you plan to organize your session?
Online only (with onsite facilitator who will help with questions or comments from the floor)
Specific Issues for Discussion
Companies such as SpaceX, Amazon, OneWeb, Telesat, and others are racing to launch large systems of Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEOs) to provide Internet access. While they may help bridge the digital divide, particularly in remote regions, they could put Internet access into the hands of a few large companies and introduce new security and privacy concerns. What are the opportunities with LEO systems? How can they help with infrastructure resilience particularly for islands? What are the concerns that regulators, policy makers, technologists, and individuals should be thinking about? What new challenges might these systems have for our existing systems of Internet governance? How can we use LEO systems to connect more people, while ensuring the Internet remains open, globally connected, secure and trustworthy.  The Internet Society, a global nonprofit focused on building a bigger, stronger Internet for everyone, researched LEO systems in 2022 and will explain what they found, how secure the systems may or may not be, and what we all need to be concerned about as these systems expand. Attendees will leave with information about how LEO systems work and with recommendations for areas of concern and questions to consider.
Describe the Relevance of Your Session to APrIGF
This session directly relates to the theme of Inclusion as LEO-based satellite systems offer the promise of providing new ways to connect the unconnected and bring digital connectivity to more people, especially in regions that may have limited options. But, will they be available and affordable? This session also relates to the theme of Sustainability in that LEO-based systems may provide another means to provide resilient connectivity. For example, while a subsea cable may be the primary connection for an island, a LEO-based system may provide a secondary connection in the event of outages. There are also environmental concerns about these systems that fit into the sustainability theme.

The challenge for Internet governance is that at the time of this proposal submission, only one of the proposed LEO systems, SpaceX's Starlink, is deployed at a large enough scale for people to use. There are so many questions about the capabilities and the policy issues around these systems. Will they be positive or negative for the open Internet?

The next two to three years will be critical for these systems as several other companies launch and deploy their systems. We have an opportunity to help shape the policies and systems in this area to ensure that they are as inclusive and sustainable as possible.

An outcome of the session will be to equip the participants with the information and questions needed to shape these emerging discussions.
Methodology / Agenda (Please add rows by clicking "+" on the right)
Time frame (e.g. 5 minutes, 20 minutes, should add up to 60 minutes) Description
5 mins Introduction and scene setting by facilitator/moderator
20 minutes Presentation of Internet Society research and identification of major opportunities and areas of concern for Internet governance
25-30 minutes Open discussion with participants about the opportunities and challenges they see for LEO-based Internet access systems
5-10 mins Final speaker points + facilitation summation / next steps
Moderators & Speakers Info (Please complete where possible)
  • Moderator (Primary)

    • Stakeholder Group: Academia
    • Expected Presence: In-person
    • Status of Confirmation: Proposed
  • Moderator (Facilitator)

    • Name: Adrian Wan
    • Organization: Internet Society
    • Designation: Senior Policy and Advocacy Manager
    • Gender: male
    • Economy / Country of Residence: Singapore
    • Stakeholder Group: Academia
    • Expected Presence: In-person
    • Status of Confirmation: Proposed
  • Speaker 1

    • Name: Dan York
    • Organization: Internet Society
    • Designation: Project Lead, LEO Satellite Internet Systems
    • Gender: male
    • Economy / Country of Residence: United States
    • Stakeholder Group: Technical Community
    • Expected Presence: Online
    • Status of Confirmation: Confirmed
    • Link of Bio (URL only):
  • Speaker 2

    • Name: Rajnesh Singh
    • Organization: Internet Society
    • Designation: Regional Vice President - Asia-Pacific
    • Gender: male
    • Economy / Country of Residence: Australia
    • Stakeholder Group: Technical Community
    • Expected Presence: Online
    • Status of Confirmation: Confirmed
    • Link of Bio (URL only):
  • Speaker 3

    • Stakeholder Group: Academia
    • Expected Presence: In-person
    • Status of Confirmation: Proposed
  • Speaker 4

    • Stakeholder Group: Academia
    • Expected Presence: In-person
    • Status of Confirmation: Proposed
Please explain the rationale for choosing each of the above contributors to the session.
Dan York leads the Internet Society's 2022 project around Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites where he led the work to define the organization's position and concerns about LEO-based satellite Internet access systems. Dan has been online since the 1980s and with the Internet Society since 2011. He brings a depth of experience to his presentations. His bio can be found at He has presented for over 30 years at sessions large and small. Many of his presentations can be found at:

Rajnesh Singh leads the Internet Society's work in the Asia-Pacific region. He brings to the session his deep knowledge of the AP region and his extensive experience with Internet governance, technology and business. He understands both the Internet infrastructure in the AP region as well as the governance and policy issues - he can relate these directly to the evolving industry around LEO satellite systems. His bio can be found at
If you need assistance to find a suitable speaker to contribute to your session, or an onsite facilitator for your online-only session, please specify your request with details of what you are looking for.
I would be interested in including additional participants in the Asia-Pacific who are actually using a LEO-based system for Internet access and who could talk about their experience. I have found this challenging due to the fact that SpaceX's Starlink service is not yet widely available in the AP region. If the program committee knows of anyone who could provide this perspective, I would love to add one or more. After my primary presentation I would ask each of them to speak for perhaps 5 minutes and then to be available to participate in the open discussion.

Note: It is possible that Raj Singh may be able to attend in person. If he is NOT, I will also need an online facilitator to help with discussion involving people in the room.
Please declare if you have any potential conflict of interest with the Program Committee 2022.
Are you or other session contributors planning to apply for the APrIGF Fellowship Program 2022?
Number of Attendees (Please fill in numbers)
    Gender Balance in Moderators/Speakers (Please fill in numbers)
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